Newcastle disease exists in many countries around the world, however some European countries are now free. It is a “legally contagious disease” that is notifiable.
The virus can have various repercussions. Thus, the disease can be mild or on the contrary very serious with 100% mortality.
In its most serious form, Newcastle disease begins with a high fever accompanied by profuse, greenish diarrhea. The bird coughs, has difficulty breathing, and the tissues around the eyes and neck swell. The subjects no longer eat and drink a lot. It continues with very characteristic nervous symptoms: head carried to the side, round back, great difficulty in mobilizing the wings which are then carried drooping, gait more and more hesitant. The plumage is bristling. Then follow convulsions, paralysis and death. We can see the existence of three forms of the disease: superacute, acute and subacute. Either way, death is the only way out. In the subacute form it occurs less quickly.
Causes of Newcastle disease
The disease is caused by a paramyxovirus. This germ is present in bronchial secretions and droppings. Transmission can be through direct contact with the infesting elements named above, but also indirectly through drinking water, food, feeders and drinkers, clothing, instruments of ‘breeding…
There is no specific treatment making it possible to fight this disease which systematically leads to the death of affected subjects. Prevention is ensured primarily by vaccination of birds. It intervenes from the 28th day and annual reminders are necessary. We must not forget either the essential sanitary prophylaxis: elimination of infected birds, isolation of doubtful subjects, maintenance of clothing and equipment, disinfection of premises …